based on the creation of an open source, we have faced the challenge of logistics and Manufacturing of telescopes for detecting and tracking potentially dangerous asteroids.

This project is solving the Asteroid Watchers challenge.


Materials to make glass Cervit vicroceramico is a glass ceramic material is used for silica sand ( SiO2) , sodium carbonate ( Na2CO3) and limestone (CaCO3). R : Armored Glass in Panama R : Metal Glass Panama A: Glass and Aluminium Based on who is going to carve a mirror 1500mm and 370mm in diameter. abrasives : Carborundum No. 150 approximate number 1666 - 410.9 gr 495bl .......... "....... No. 220 approximate number 833 - 205.5gr 395bl ............. " F. ........ 3 .... approximate number 1666 - 410.9gr 102bl HARDWARE SUMICALI S.A.S * Grinders : Can be imported or domestic are numbered as follows : Imported No. 30 ( national equivalent 400) 100g 150bl Imported No. 12 ( national equivalent 800) 100g 100BL Imported No. 5 ( 1200-1400 national equivalent preferably 1400 ) 200gr 100BL INDUSTRIAL CENTER , S A DAG 115- S grinder industrial center Panama Panama Polishing : Cerium oxide (quality : white) 1666gr . • grinding efficiency constant • Flexible use ; can be used with a wide range of tools and equipment across multiple types of glass • Low cost - highly effective • High productivity • Very few scratches • High rate of elimination • Very high quality surfaces To pitch cake : Plant pitch is very difficult to achieve, it is possible that we are forced to use mineral pitch , it is elastic , to avoid this, we add plant resin , castor oil or flax in the following proportions : 50 % mineral Brea Resin plant 40 % Linseed or castor oil 10% . Castor oil is added to the resin by 10 % prior to mixing with the pitch , that is, is first mixed castor and resin and then include the pitch . Materials for different solutions of silver : A. crystallized silver nitrate ............. 499.8 gr. Distilled water to make 1,000 cc .............................. B. Ammonium nitrate crystals .............. 749.7 gr. Distilled water to make 1,000 cc ...................... C. Sodium hydroxide .......................... 874.6 gr. Distilled water to 1,000 cc ...................... D. Glucose ................................... 583.1 gr. Distilled water to make 1,000 cc ...................... IBIS CHEMICALS Av 2 E Panama , David CHEMICALS , S A Panama , Panama secondary mirror Products required for silver Silver nitrate. Harmonic hydroxide (ammonia ) . Sodium or potassium hydroxide . Glucose . tube Carbon fiber material • Very high mechanical strength, a high modulus of elasticity. • Low density, compared with other elements such as steel . • High price of production. • Resistance to external agents. • High thermal insulation. • Resistance to temperature variations of keeping its shape , only if thermosetting matrix used .

Operation of the robotic telescope These robotic telescopes are automated through a complex set of mechanical and electronic equipment: • A (software) tracking system that controls its servomotors (software). • CCD camera or equivalent technology to acquire images, coupled to a system of focusing lenses. • A system of control of the dome or the closing of the telescope system. • Identification of weather conditions and accessory functions. • to manage the information a pc and a computer that controls the motors and other equipment of the telescope.

Telescopes The design of the telescope, chosen for their ability of observation and transmission speed of data focused for the detection of asteroids in a with a 3 degree field of view and be equipped with a digital camera with 1.4 million pixels CCD. Which spatial sampling of the sky will be about 0.3 seconds of arc. It is the pan-Starrs.

OPTICAL DESIGN OF THE TELESCOPE Telescope recorded 1.80 m in the mirror primary concave following design Ritchey - Chrétien, the first light was reflected in a convex secondary mirror to a focus Cassegrain located behind the primary mirror. In such a way to produce good images in a wide field of vision, light passes through three corrective lenses before reaching the camera in sight. Each of the lenses is about 50cm in diameter. The focal ratio of f / 4 offers a focal length of 8 metres, and the scale of 38.5 microns per second of arc plate The same optical design will be chosen for mounting the mirrors of the telescopes from 37cm with lower values of measures. The development of this type of telescope in the country of panama, is in order to seek solutions in geographic access points to the observation of asteroids that are potentially harmful to the Earth, looking for an accessible economical way to create and achieve the goal of building these telescopes in the country.

ASSEMBLY OF THE SUPPORT STRUCTURE Using galvanized steel and assembling the parts we put together the frame containing the telescope mirrors.

The mirrors can be within a single dome. But the instrument would be compact enough to be placed within a comparatively small dome.

To 37cm telescope the minor is placed him a lighter similar support structure that will be coated with a durable and super effective material which is carbon fiber.

Environmental Impact Assessment Project: Development of telescopes and transporting it to the province of Chiriquí. Location: Province of Chiriquí, San Félix district, 231 km from the city of Penonomé, a distance of 3 hours. And 150 Km from the city of Panamá. Coordinates: 12'45 8th .0 " N 81 ° 56'15 .0" W

Environmental impact statement: 1. CONSTRUCTION PROCESS a. Foundation raises levels of sedimentation, soil generation of solid waste. b. Concrete structure: is responsible for the emission of greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide release to the atmosphere. c. Transport of materials: pollutes the air by dust particles, resulting from the movement of the teams during his career. d. Installation of electrical structures: has resulted in a decrease in vegetation cover are available in this area to develop agricultural activities.

  2. Using renewable energy sources such as hydro, solar and wind.
  3. Maintain a system of waste collection and deposit in containers away from the building.
  4. Controlling erosion process does not pose any harm to the structure and functioning.
  5. Readjust access roads to lessen the impact and keep the vehicle in good condition. Moreover, it is advisable to turn off appliances or machines that are not in use to prevent the production of greenhouse gases.
  6. During the dry season is necessary to dampen the road to reduce dust lifting.


PACKING TYPE FIRST TELESCOPES (DETECTION): This type of telescope will be packaged in a box playwood with polyurethane foam playwood. This type of case will be sent to a Panamanian company make Multiply SA (optional). The polyurethane foam shall be prepared in Panama molded based on the dimensions of the boxes playwood VINYFOAM company (optional). • BUDGET: Plywood boxes (5) dimensions of 79 "x 142", with a manufacturing cost including labor B/.800 (approximate). • Polyurethane Foam: including 5 sheets of polyurethane foam has a budget of B/.300.

Features • Boxes playwood: they are made of expensive but strong material, our decision to use this material is for the simple reason that so we can save more money by avoiding costly damage to these fragile pieces yet is lightweight and easy to handle for the transport of these telescopes. • Polyurethane foams: protect more effectively the telescope to be a material resistant to different climates, yet are thermal insulators. PACKING THE SECOND TYPE TELESCOPE (UP): For the dimensions of this type of telescope form of transportation will expedite parts for transport and safety. PARTIES TO BE DIVIDED TELESCOPE:  Primary concave mirror.  Secondary convex mirror.  Remaining structure of the telescope. • Primary concave mirror (SHIPPING): This part of the telescope will be covered with polyurethane foam, because we must be extra careful with this part and decrease the least vibration possible to avoid damage to it; it is placed in a box with playwood appropriate to the dimensions of the mirror so that the part is clamped and static dimensions. • Convex mirror Secondary: cover this piece with polyurethane foam and will be transported in a suitable box playwood their dimensions.

BUDGET: Plywood boxes:  Concave Mirror Primary: plywood boxes will have a size of 147 "x147" to ensure support and prevent vibrations. Approximate cost of production including labor is $ 1, 500.  Secondary Convex Mirror: playwood boxes will have a size of 59 "x59". Aproxímate cost of production including labor is B/.750.

(All these plywood boxes will be manufactured at the company MULTIPLY SA (optional).


To transport all the different dimensions telescopes use land transport vehicles, because it is cheaper and faster, and also the place where you make the observatory is located access road. Four vehicles will use heavy equipment. First vehicle: this is responsible for keeping the container with small telescopes (5). Second Vehicle: is take care of the primary mirror and the secondary mirror that will also go into a container. Third car: take care of transporting the remaining structure of the telescope tracking and trailer will aim to download the smaller pieces, the remaining structure of the telescope will weatherproof polyethylene coated to prioritize safety. It shall be fastened with ropes and harnesses to the car of heavy equipment. Fourth car: take care of transporting the crane that aims to download large parts of the telescope.

CONTAINERS The decision to use containers for transporting telescopes is because they are safer, protect more merchandise since in our case the security is very important for the delicacy involved transporting a telescope; however we decided to load the telescope stand weatherproof plastic covered only because this is a rigid structure and can be exposed to more vibration than the same telescope lens. The type of container you use is 40 feet from the company GALL LOGISTIC INTERNATIONAL INC PANAMA (optional).

BUDGET Container rental $ 500.00 c / u per day. Rental of heavy equipment that will be from the starting point (OAP Penonome) to the point of installation (San Félix Chiriquí), including the remuneration of the driver and fuel consumed are estimated to be 231 Km B/.200.00 c / u.

Project Information

License: MIT license (MIT)

Source Code/Project URL: https://www.dropbox.com/s/k12u7nu8l1up5bj/Asteroid%20watchers%20%28constrantel%29.pdf


SELF-SUSTAINABLE-DESIGN-FOR-TRACKING-CENTER-ASTEROID-OBSERVATION-AND-DOME - https://www.dropbox.com/s/k12u7nu8l1up5bj/Asteroid%20watchers%20%28constrantel%29.pdf
SIFREESEA - https://2014.spaceappschallenge.org/project/sifreesem/
MONISIO-OBSERVATORY - https://2014.spaceappschallenge.org/project/monisio-observatory/
safaric - https://2014.spaceappschallenge.org/project/safaric/


  • Daniel  Suarez
  • Damián Solís
  • Melvin Quiros
  • Dalys Villarreal
  • Edwin Ortega
  • Eylin Rodriguez perez
  • Azael Samaniego